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Last Updated: Oct 4, 2017 URL: Print Guide

Evaluate Sources Print Page

Fact Check

  • is a project of the Annenberg Public Policy Center of the University of Pennsylvania.

    A nonpartisan, nonprofit “consumer advocate” for voters that aims to reduce the level of deception and confusion in U.S. politics.
  • PolitiFact
    Winner of the Pulitzer Prize for National Reporting in 2009, Politifact is a fact-checking website that rates the accuracy of claims by elected officials and others who speak up in American politics.

    PolitiFact is run by editors and reporters from the Tampa Bay Times, an independent newspaper in Florida, as is PunditFact, a site devoted to fact-checking pundits.

Evaluate with the CRAAP Test

Critically evaluate your sources for:

     Currency  Relevance  Authority  Accuracy  Purpose



Evaluating Sources (Purdue OWL)

Evaluating Journal Articles

Is it peer reviewed? See: peer review explained at Science Direct.

See also: the Popular vs. Scholarly page on this LibGuide.



    Evaluating Research Articles


    SAGE Encyclopedia of... Research Methods

    Evaluating Web Content


    Definitions for reading, watching, listening to and writing about the news.

    Terminology to add to the list, includes:
    byline - a line giving the name of the writer of an article in a newspaper or magazine.

    Truth, truthiness, triangulation: A news literacy toolkit for a “post-truth” world

    Evaluating "News" Sources

    False, Misleading, Clickbait-y, and Satirical “News” Sources

    1. F
    ake, false, or regularly misleading websites are often shared on social media, including Facebook. Some of these websites may rely on “outrage” by using distorted headlines and decontextualized or dubious information in order to generate likes, shares, and profits.

    2. Some websites circulate misleading and/or potentially unreliable information, or present opinion pieces as news.

    3. Other websites use hyperbolic or clickbait-y headlines and/or social media descriptions, but may otherwise circulate reliable and/or verifiable information.

    4. Other sources purposefully fake with the intent of satire/comedy, which can offer important critical commentary on politics and society, but have the potential to be shared as actual/literal news, for example, The Onion.

    Tips for analyzing news sources:

    ● Avoid websites that end in “lo” ex: Newslo. These sites take pieces of accurate information and then packaging that information with other false or misleading “facts” (sometimes for the purposes of satire or comedy).

    ● Watch out for websites that end in “” as they are often fake versions of real news sources

    ● Watch out if known/reputable news sites are not also reporting on the story. Sometimes lack of coverage is the result of corporate media bias and other factors, but there should typically be more than one source reporting on a topic or event.

    ● Odd domain names generally equal odd and rarely truthful news.

    ● Lack of author attribution may, but not always, signify that the news story is suspect and requires verification.

    ● Some news organizations are also letting bloggers post under the banner of particular news brands; however, many of these posts do not go through the same editing process. (This includes Forbes blogs, for example.)

    ● Check the “About Us” tab on websites or look up the website on Snopes or Wikipedia for more information about the source.

    ● Bad web design and use of ALL CAPS can also be a sign that the source you’re looking at should be verified and/or read in conjunction with other sources.

    ● If the story makes you REALLY ANGRY it’s probably a good idea to keep reading about the topic via other sources to make sure the story you read wasn’t purposefully trying to make you angry (with potentially misleading or false information) in order to generate shares and ad revenue.

    ● If the website you’re reading encourages you to DOX individuals (to reveal the private information of others, i.e., cell phone number, email address, etc.), it’s unlikely to be a legitimate source of news.

    ● It’s always best to read multiple sources of information to get a variety of viewpoints and media frames. Some sources, such as The Daily Kos, The Huffington Post, and Fox News, vacillate between providing important, legitimate, problematic, and/or hyperbolic news coverage, requiring readers and viewers to verify and contextualize information with other sources.


    Adapted from: 

    © 2016  by Melissa Zimdars. The work 'False, Misleading, Clickbait-y, and Satirical “News” Sourcesavailable under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

    Melissa Zimdars, Assistant Professor of Communication, Department of Communication and Media, Merrimack College, North Andover, MA


      How to Choose Your News


      News Quality Chart

      News Quality Chart

      First Draft News

      Columbia Journalism Review | 6 Types of Misinformation

      Calling Bullshit: In the Age of Big Data

      • Calling Bullshit
        Includes syllabus and case studies. Calling Bullshit is a proposed course at University of Washington developed by Carl Bergstrom and Jevin West.

        "Bullshit is language, statistical figures, data graphics, and other forms of presentation intended to persuade by impressing and overwhelming a reader or listener, with a blatant disregard for truth and logical coherence."

      The News Literacy Project and... how to know what to believe


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